It is possible that the main title of the report Tourette Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Tourette Syndrome is a hereditary neurological movement disorder that is characterized by repetitive motor and vocal tics. Symptoms may include involuntary movements of the extremities, shoulders, and face accompanied by uncontrollable sounds and, in some cases, inappropriate words. Tourette Syndrome is neither a progressive nor degenerative disorder; rather, symptoms tend to be variable and follow a chronic waxing and waning course throughout an otherwise normal life span. The specific symptoms associated with Tourette Syndrome often vary greatly from case to case. The exact cause of Tourette Syndrome is unknown.
Kirsten Müller-Vahl, MD, Director of Tourette Syndrome Clinic at the Medical School of Hannover, et al., stated the following in their Apr. 2003 study titled “Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Is Effective in the Treatment of Tics in Tourette Syndrome: A 6-Week Randomized Trial,” published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry:
METHOD: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 patients with TS [Tourette syndrome], according to DSM-III-R criteria, were treated over a 6-week period with up to 10 mg/day of THC…
RESULTS: Seven patients dropped out of the study or had to be excluded, but only 1 due to side effects. Using the TS-CGI, STSSS, YGTSS, and video rating scale, we found a significant difference (p <.05) or a trend toward a significant difference (p <.10) between THC and placebo groups at visits 2, 3, and/or 4. Using the TSSL at 10 treatment days (between days 16 and 41) there was a significant difference (p <.05) between both groups. ANOVA as well demonstrated a significant difference (p =.037). No serious adverse effects occurred.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide more evidence that THC is effective and safe in the treatment of tics. It, therefore, can be hypothesized that the central cannabinoid receptor system might play a role in TS pathology.”
Apr. 2003 – Kirsten Müller-Vahl, MD
Kirsten Müller-Vahl, MD, Director of Tourette Syndrome Clinic at the Medical School of Hannover, et al., stated the following in their Dec. 1998 study titled “Cannabinoids: Possible Role in Patho-physiology and Therapy of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome,” published in the journal Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica: “High densities of cannabinoid receptors were found in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, indicating a putative functional role of cannabinoids in movement and behaviour. Anecdotal reports suggested beneficial effects of marijuana in Tourette’s syndrome (TS).
We therefore interviewed 64 TS patients with regard to use of marijuana and its influence on TS symptomatology. Of 17 patients (27%) who reported prior use of marijuana, 14 subjects (82%) experienced a reduction or complete remission of motor and vocal tics and an amelioration of premonitory urges and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Our results provide more evidence that marijuana improves tics and behavioural disorders in TS. It can be speculated that cannabinoids might act through specific receptors, and that the cannabinoid system might play a major role in TS pathology.”
Dec. 1998 – Kirsten Müller-Vahl, MD